This book describes Thyroid Gland, Function, Diseases, Diagnosis and Treatment and Related Diseases
The thyroid gland is a very vital endocrine gland sited in the front of the neck below the larynx
The two-inch gland comprises two lobes, one on each side of the windpipe joined by tissue called the isthmus.
It has a primary function in the metabolism, growth and development of the human body.
It helps to regulate many body functions by constantly secreting a steady amount of thyroid hormones into the bloodstream.
If the body needs more energy in certain circumstances if it is growing or cold, or during pregnancy, the thyroid gland produces more hormones.
The thyroid secretes 3 important hormones – tri-iodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4) and calcitonin.
Life and Death of a thyroid gland cell:
My name is Energy Man the Thyroid Gland Cell.
I was named Energy Man by my friends who feel that Energy Man is the most suitable name of a cell from Energy Inducing Thyroid gland of the human body.
In the fetus at 3-4 weeks of gestation, our thyroid gland appears as an epithelial proliferation in the floor of the pharynx at the base of the tongue between the tuberculum impar and the copula linguae at a point later indicated by the foramen cecum.
Our thyroid gland then descends in front of the pharyngeal gut as a bi-lobed diverticulum through the thyroglossal duct.
Over the next few weeks, we migrate to the base of the neck passing anterior to the hyoid bone.
Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) start being secreted from the fetal hypothalamus and pituitary at 18-20 weeks of gestation, and fetal production of our thyroxine (T4) reach a clinically significant level at 18–20 weeks.
Our Fetal triiodothyronine (T3) remains low (less than 15ng/dL) until 30 weeks of gestation, and increases to 50ng/dL at term.
Preterm births can suffer neurodevelopmental disorders due to lack of maternal thyroid hormones due their own thyroid being insufficiently developed to meet their postnatal needs.
The portion of our thyroid gland containing our parafollicular C cells responsible for the production of calcitonin is derived from the neural crest.
The ultimobranchial body joins our primordial thyroid gland during its descent to its final location in the anterior neck.
My thyroid tissue is made up of 2 types of cells:
1.Most of my thyroid tissue consists of the follicular cells which secrete my iodine-containing hormones called thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3).
2.My parafollicular cells which are clear cells (C cells) secrete the hormone calcitonin to control the blood calcium
My thyroid needs iodine to produce the hormones.
My T4 and T3 hormones stimulate every tissue in the body to produce proteins and body energy.
My thyroid hormones increases growth and metabolism and are stored bound to a protein called thyroglobulin in the colloid of my follicles.
My calcitonin hormone works together with the parathyroid hormone to regulate calcium in the body.
My thyroid hormones regulate how the body breaks down the food we eat.
The levels of hormones secreted by my thyroid are controlled by the pituitary gland's thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) which in turn is controlled by the hypothalamus.
My T3 also stimulates growth and development of the brain and bones.
Since my thyroid cells produce my thyroid hormone which is also a growth hormone, there is very little our cells lost during the life span of my thyroid gland.
Apoptosis of my thyroid cells as usual helps to regenerate cells that are lost.
Even then our cells volume becomes lesser every year.
Necrosis of my thyroid gland can cause the death of my thyroid gland.
TABLE OF CONTENT
Chapter 1 Thyroid Gland
Chapter 2 Functions
Chapter 3 Formation and Death
Chapter 4 Diseases
Chapter 5 Hypothyroidism
Chapter 6 Hyperthyroidism
Chapter 7 Hashimoto Thyroiditis
Chapter 8 Life and Death Thyroid Cell